23 March 2019

Now available: Advanced Genetic Genealogy: Techniques and Case Studies

For Immediate Release

NEW ON DNA: Advanced Genetic Genealogy: Techniques and Case Studies

More researchers than ever are using DNA for genealogy and adoption research. There are many books on this subject, but only Advanced Genetic Genealogy: Techniques and Case Studies works through actual cases showing how to use advanced analysis techniques and genealogy standards to get results.

Advanced Genetic Genealogy: Techniques and Case Studies will help intermediate researchers move up to the next level and advanced researchers apply the new DNA standards and write about DNA. This new book offers an in-home course in advanced genetic genealogy. It includes about 400 pages, 136 images, most in full-color, and dozens of tables demonstrating analysis techniques, tracking of DNA information, and writing about DNA. Each of the fourteen chapters was written by a professional genealogist with DNA experience.

Eight chapters study real families (some using anonymized identities), including methods, tools, and techniques.
  • Jim Bartlett covers how to triangulate a genome (mapping DNA segments to ancestors).
  • Blaine T. Bettinger demonstrates visual phasing (mapping DNA segments to the grandparents who passed down a particular segment to descendants, even when the grandparents cannot be tested).
  • Kathryn J. Johnston shows how to use X-DNA to identify and confirm ancestral lines.
  • James M. Owston describes findings of the Owston Y-DNA project.
  • Melissa A. Johnson covers adoption and misattributed parentage research.
  • Kimberly T. Powell provides guidance (and hope!) for those researching families with endogamy and pedigree collapse.
  • Debbie Parker Wayne combines atDNA and Y-DNA in a Parker family study.
  • Ann Turner describes the raw DNA data and lab processes.

Three middle chapters cover genealogy standards as they relate to DNA and documentary evidence.
  • Karen Stanbary applies the Genealogical Proof Standard (GPS) to genetic genealogy in a hypothetical unknown parentage case illustrating start-to-finish analysis.
  • Patricia Lee Hobbs uses atDNA to identify a real-life unknown ancestor and that ancestor's maiden name, moving back and forth between documentary and DNA evidence.
  • Thomas W. Jones describes best practices for genealogical writing and publishing incorporating DNA evidence.

Three concluding chapters deal with ethics, emotions, and the future.
  • Judy G. Russell covers ethical issues and considerations.
  • Michael D. Lacopo describes the effect on relationships when family secrets are uncovered, surfacing issues for all concerned.
  • Debbie Kennett covers the current limitations and future promise of using DNA for genealogy.
An extensive glossary, list of recommended resources, and index are included.

Advanced Genetic Genealogy: Techniques and Case Studies will be available at Books and Things in the NGS conference exhibit hall, Booth 401 (near the front aisle). Reviews and order links for Amazon (print versions) are available at https://www.amazon.com/Advanced-Genetic-Genealogy-Techniques-Studies/dp/1733694900/ and other venues are available at http://debbiewayne.com/aggtcs/ (or at http://debbiewayne.com/ then click on Publications).

A Kindle version is scheduled for May availability if all goes well. An announcement will be made when it is available.



All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "Now available: Advanced Genetic Genealogy: Techniques and Case Studies," Deb's Delvings, 23 March 2019 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2019, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

10 March 2019

DNA Standards - Part 8

For "DNA Standards - Part 1" see https://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/2019/03/dna-standards-part-1.html. In the first part I paraphrased the standards for using DNA evidence for genealogy into bullet points.

This is the post for "DNA Standards - Part 8."


1

Prior bullets are discussed in other parts of this series:


In "DNA Standards - Part 8" I further discuss the final bullet. The main bullets indicate considerations when using DNA to help answer a research question; sub-items explain what is needed to accomplish the tasks defined in the main bullet:

  • publish or share only as a living test taker’s permission allows (Standard 57)
    • deceased persons have no privacy rights; courtesy to living descendants might warrant anonymizing the identity of a deceased test taker
    • general information can be shared as long as the identifying information is hidden (such as when asking for assistance or when teaching how to use a site or tool)

    • do not use a living person’s DNA results if they do not give permission (some disagree on whether inclusion in a public DNA project constitutes permission)
    • do not identify a living person if they do not give permission
      • identities can be anonymized
      • anonymizing too many people in a study may make the conclusion questionable

Unless you are working in a legal capacity where you may be held liable for misidentifying descendants you should be able to use whatever sources you wish to use. If you are publishing, your work will be subject to the requirements of the editor. If you are submitting a portfolio to BCG, your work will be subject to the requirements of BCG. You should contact those entities with your questions.

There will always be disagreements about what constitutes proof. I have read articles in some of the premier genealogical journals that I do not think meet the threshold for the claims made. Obviously, the editors and peer-reviewers felt differently. Some of those articles were based only on documents and some included DNA. We will never all agree on exactly how much evidence is needed for proof and DNA does not change that fact.





BCG, Genealogy Standards, 2nd ed. (Nashville: Ancestry, 2019)

GETTING OFFICIAL INFORMATION ON STANDARDS FROM BCG

Only BCG provides official answers on what it expects to see in application portfolios. No one, not even members of the BCG Board of Trustees or associates helping at exhibit hall booths, speak officially for BCG. For specifics on what BCG expects to see in portfolios, please use BCG’s website, blog, newsletter, and other means of communication:



All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Standards - Part 8," Deb's Delvings, 10 March 2019 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2019, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

DNA Standards - Part 7

For "DNA Standards - Part 1" see https://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/2019/03/dna-standards-part-1.html. In the first part I paraphrased the standards for using DNA evidence for genealogy into bullet points.

This is the post for "DNA Standards - Part 7."


1

Prior bullets are discussed in other parts of this series:


In "DNA Standards - Part 7" I further discuss the eighth bullet. The main bullets indicate considerations when using DNA to help answer a research question; sub-items explain what is needed to accomplish the tasks defined in the main bullet:

  • make the DNA data available for verification, as much as possible within the limits of test taker permissions (Standard 54)
    • depending on publication venue this might mean
      • providing login information to an editor to confirm the DNA data (the password can be changed after the editor has completed the review)
      • asking test takers to upload to a public project (such as at FamilyTreeDNA where the test taker gives permission and the administrator sets project options for results to be displayed publicly)
      • asking test takers to upload to a publicly available third-party website (available to any internet user without logging in or requiring a login and password that any person can obtain)
      • providing screenshots of web pages with the DNA or match data
    • if the DNA test results are not publicly shared or confirmed by an unbiased third party there is a risk that the author misinterpreted the DNA test results
    • if one or more test takers choose to remain unidentified the credibility of the conclusion should be evaluated with that person removed or anonymized
    • if one or more test takers choose to remain unidentified the essay may not meet the criteria for some publications nor be the best choice of work sample to demonstrate your analysis and correlation skill
    • just as we have always done with articles and work samples based on documentary sources, we must make judgments on credibility when using DNA sources


Additional bullets will be discussed in other parts of this series:



BCG, Genealogy Standards, 2nd ed. (Nashville: Ancestry, 2019)

GETTING OFFICIAL INFORMATION ON STANDARDS FROM BCG

Only BCG provides official answers on what it expects to see in application portfolios. No one, not even members of the BCG Board of Trustees or associates helping at exhibit hall booths, speak officially for BCG. For specifics on what BCG expects to see in portfolios, please use BCG’s website, blog, newsletter, and other means of communication:



All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Standards - Part 7," Deb's Delvings, 10 March 2019 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2019, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

DNA Standards - Part 6

For "DNA Standards - Part 1" see https://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/2019/03/dna-standards-part-1.html. In the first part I paraphrased the standards for using DNA evidence for genealogy into bullet points.

This is the post for "DNA Standards - Part 6."

1


Prior bullets are discussed in other parts of this series:

In "DNA Standards - Part 6" I further discuss the seventh bullet. The main bullet indicates considerations when using DNA to help answer a research question; sub-items explain what is needed to accomplish the tasks defined in the main bullet:

  • identify familial relationships (where appropriate), present the conclusion as a genetic link only if the DNA supports that conclusion, explain any insufficient research (Standards 50, 56, 65, 74)
    • no researcher is required to use DNA, but, where available and appropriate, DNA is such a strong piece of evidence for biological relationships that ignoring it is imprudent
      • trying to use atDNA to prove biological relationships further back than five to seven generations is not always possible, but sometimes is when random recombination results in segments remaining unbroken over several generations (you do not know what you will find until you look)
      • trying to use Y-DNA or mtDNA is not always possible if no living test takers have the Y-DNA or mtDNA of interest to this research question or if those with the DNA needed are not willing to test
    • no researcher is required to use DNA, but not using DNA when trying to prove a biological or genetic relationship will make many suspect the conclusion may not be accurate
      • researchers who have not yet learned to use DNA may take this risk (no DNA police will come knocking on your door, but knowledgeable researchers may wonder why DNA was not used)
      • researchers who have not yet learned to use DNA may hire someone who has educated themselves on using this source (just as one might hire a German researcher for research in Germany, a photographic expert for photo repairs, or an editor for a book)
    • if DNA is not available because there are no living test takers or none willing to test, indicating this informs the reader that DNA was considered and is not available
      • no living test takers with the right DNA is similar to the records being burned in a courthouse fire
      • no person willing to test is similar to the source being held in a repository that restricts access
      • we have dealt with these issues with paper records for years and can apply the same logic to DNA

    • if DNA evidence is not considered, knowing the rate of misattributed parentage seen in most lines, reasonable researchers may conclude a genetic or biological relationship is not proven
    • if no specific familial relationships is specified and if DNA is not used, reasonable researchers may conclude a genetic or biological relationship is not proven even if such a relationship is implied
      • just as genealogists have always done when documentary evidence was not strong enough to “prove” a relationship, one can indicate “DNA evidence is not available because of XYZ, all of the documentary evidence available supports a conclusion that John Doe is the father of William Doe” or “John Doe named his son William in his will” or dozens of other ways this can be indicated without implying a DNA test supports the conclusion or using words other than the ones we traditionally use to define relationships
      • some researchers think an explicit statement should be made of the relationship type being asserted; some think, in the absence of a stated relationship type, the sources used make an implicit statement
      • some think we have always asserted biological relationships without DNA evidence and should still be able to do so; some think today’s technology means there is a paradigm shift that should be embraced

These discussions are likely to continue for the next few years or longer. In my time in the genealogical world, the same kinds of discussions took place when computers first began being used and again when so many records became available online. The genealogical community made it through those changes which were major transitions in how we work. I suspect we will make it through this "crisis" in time to be poised for the next one that will surely come.

Additional bullets will be discussed in other parts of this series:




BCG, Genealogy Standards, 2nd ed. (Nashville: Ancestry, 2019)

GETTING OFFICIAL INFORMATION ON STANDARDS FROM BCG

Only BCG provides official answers on what it expects to see in application portfolios. No one, not even members of the BCG Board of Trustees or associates helping at exhibit hall booths, speak officially for BCG. For specifics on what BCG expects to see in portfolios, please use BCG’s website, blog, newsletter, and other means of communication:




All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Standards - Part 6," Deb's Delvings, 10 March 2019 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2019, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

08 March 2019

DNA Standards - Part 5

For "DNA Standards - Part 1" see https://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/2019/03/dna-standards-part-1.html. In the first part I paraphrased the standards for using DNA evidence for genealogy into bullet points.

This is the post for "DNA Standards - Part 5."

1


Prior bullets are discussed in other parts of this series:

In "DNA Standards - Part 5" I further discuss the sixth bullet. The main bullet indicates considerations when using DNA to help answer a research question; sub-items explain what is needed to accomplish the tasks defined in the main bullet:

  • support every parent-child link in the line from all test takers to the hypothesized ancestors with documentary evidence (Standard 2)
    • this applies to all parent-child links in all lines in our study group (even the parent-child links we see in someone else's online tree) and not only the line from the main/focus test taker back to the hypothesized common ancestor
    • this evidence may be presented in the narrative; the reader will likely be able to follow more easily if the evidence is summarized below a descendant chart
    • my preferred method is to use note references as seen in the image below (a, b, and so on); locating the footnote letter or number in the chart and in the list of citations is much easier for me than reading "For parentage of person XYZ see [list of documents]" then finding person XYZ in a chart; the reference numbers are much easier to locate than names, especially when a writer does not use the same exact name in the chart and the text

    • some publication venues may only need one or two sources to support each parent-child link; more sources may be needed to illustrate thorough research meeting the GPS
    • if no documentary evidence for a link can be found, explain what records were searched, search criteria used, any theory as to why no documents support this link, and why this link may be true in the face of no supporting documentary evidence
    • some parent-child links might ultimately be based on DNA evidence, but a thorough search for the documentary evidence should be demonstrated
    • for a large study group we may be able to use genetic networks to support some of the links so that we still have time to research our own family tree and extend it (as opposed to spending all of our time researching the trees of our DNA matches); some time researching the trees or adequately documenting the trees of others will be necessary, but we all need to manage our time to achieve our own goals most efficiently


Additional bullets will be discussed in other parts of this series:




BCG, Genealogy Standards, 2nd ed. (Nashville: Ancestry, 2019)

GETTING OFFICIAL INFORMATION ON STANDARDS FROM BCG

Only BCG provides official answers on what it expects to see in application portfolios. No one, not even members of the BCG Board of Trustees or associates helping at exhibit hall booths, speak officially for BCG. For specifics on what BCG expects to see in portfolios, please use BCG’s website, blog, newsletter, and other means of communication:



All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Standards - Part 5," Deb's Delvings, 8 March 2019 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2019, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

05 March 2019

DNA Standards - Part 4

For "DNA Standards - Part 1" see https://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/2019/03/dna-standards-part-1.html. In the first part I paraphrased the standards for using DNA evidence for genealogy into bullet points.

This is the post for "DNA Standards - Part 4."

1


Prior bullets are discussed in other parts of this series:

In "DNA Standards - Part 4" I further discuss the fifth bullet. The main bullet indicates considerations when using DNA to help answer a research question; sub-items explain what is needed to accomplish the tasks defined in the main bullet:

  • ensure enough people have tested to support the conclusion (Standard 53)
    • may require documenting living descendants from multiple children of a focus ancestor or ancestral couple then asking them to test
    • in general, the more generations back to the hypothesized common ancestor or the more possible shared lines, the more test takers needed
    • no one can say that, in all circumstances, you need two or three or six pieces of documentary evidence to have strong evidence for a conclusion because no one knows ahead of time what information will be found in which sources or how credible that information will be; the same applies to DNA evidence
    • exactly how many test takers are needed will vary depending on how many generations it is back to the hypothesized common ancestor and how many lines are traced down from those ancestors
    • consider whether additional tests or higher resolution tests for those test takers found in earlier research might more strongly support a conclusion


Additional bullets will be discussed in other parts of this series:




BCG, Genealogy Standards, 2nd ed. (Nashville: Ancestry, 2019)

GETTING OFFICIAL INFORMATION ON STANDARDS FROM BCG

Only BCG provides official answers on what it expects to see in application portfolios. No one, not even members of the BCG Board of Trustees or associates helping at exhibit hall booths, speak officially for BCG. For specifics on what BCG expects to see in portfolios, please use BCG’s website, blog, newsletter, and other means of communication:





All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Standards - Part 4," Deb's Delvings, 5 March 2019 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2019, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

04 March 2019

DNA Standards - Part 3

For "DNA Standards - Part 1" see https://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/2019/03/dna-standards-part-1.html. In the first part I paraphrased the standards for using DNA evidence for genealogy into bullet points.

This is the post for "DNA Standards - Part 3."

1


Prior bullets are discussed in other parts of this series:
In "DNA Standards - Part 3" I further discuss the third and fourth bullets. The main bullets indicate considerations when using DNA to help answer a research question; sub-items explain what is needed to accomplish the tasks defined in the main bullet:

  • analyze the DNA results accurately and in-depth (Standard 52) (Y-DNA STRs or SNPs; atDNA and X-DNA shared total DNA—shared, triangulated, or mapped segments, or genetic networks; mtDNA regions or locations; Y-DNA or mtDNA haplogroups; atDNA ethnicity estimates)
    • requires more in-depth understanding of the tools offered by testing companies and third-parties and how to accurately use those tools
    • may require correspondence with people to ask them about test taker links to ancestors or for permission to use third-party tools
  • integrate the thoroughly researched and analyzed DNA and documentary evidence; logically sequence and clearly illustrate the DNA analysis and the documentary analysis in a written conclusion; accurately and completely cite all sources (Standards 1–8, 55, 56, 65, 74)
    • write up the documentary evidence
    • explain why DNA is needed and give only as much DNA background as needed for this project (for example, if this case uses only Y-DNA evidence there is probably no need to explain what mtDNA and atDNA are)
    • explain the DNA evidence, correlating the shared DNA and/or mutations using tables and lineage charts


Additional bullets will be discussed in other parts of this series:




BCG, Genealogy Standards, 2nd ed. (Nashville: Ancestry, 2019)

GETTING OFFICIAL INFORMATION ON STANDARDS FROM BCG

Only BCG provides official answers on what it expects to see in application portfolios. No one, not even members of the BCG Board of Trustees or associates helping at exhibit hall booths, speak officially for BCG. For specifics on what BCG expects to see in portfolios, please use BCG’s website, blog, newsletter, and other means of communication:




All statements made in this blog are the opinion of the post author. This blog is not sponsored by any entity other than Debbie Parker Wayne nor is it supported through free or reduced price access to items discussed unless so indicated in the blog post. Hot links to other sites are provided as a courtesy to the reader and are not an endorsement of the other entities except as clearly stated in the narrative.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Standards - Part 3," Deb's Delvings, 4 March 2019 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2019, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved