03 June 2016

Join an Autosomal DNA Project (AncestryDNA, GEDmatch, FTDNA, 23andMe)

The following instructions are tailored for the "Parker FamGroup 1" autosomal DNA (atDNA) project. These instructions can be used for other projects by substituting the other project name. Whether you tested at Family Tree DNA, AncestryDNA, or 23andME, these instructions will help share your DNA data with autosomal cousins who tested at any company by sharing on GEDmatch.

The steps below were confirmed on 3 June 2016. If the website changes their procedures the exact steps needed may differ from those shown here, but will likely be similar.

Parker FamGroup 1 atDNA Project
A while back we started a DNA project so we can compare the shared atDNA of family members who are part of the Parker Surname Y-DNA project group 1 or who would be if there was an eligible Y-DNA test-taker. This allows us to compare the DNA other than Y-DNA that we all may share whether we are male or female.

Family Tree DNA currently only makes public the Y-DNA and mtDNA data for project members, based on each test-taker's privacy selections. The project administrators can also see and analyze the autosomal DNA data of project members. This helps confirm links to our Parker lines, both providing links for lines with no Y-DNA test-taker and confirming the links where the Y-DNA is not conclusive alone.

Joining the project also allows you to filter the DNA matches in your list to only those who are also in the project. This can help you zero in on those in your match list who are related through this Parker line.

The autosomal DNA project page is at:


The Y-DNA project page is at:


To Join the Parker Family Group 1 autosomal DNA Project follow the instructions below. If you tested at Family Tree DNA all you need to do is join the project on their site. If you tested elsewhere, you need to download your raw atDNA data from the testing company server then upload the data to GEDmatch.com so we can gather the information on the shared DNA segments.

If you took the Family Finder test at Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) or have already uploaded results from another testing company to FTDNA
  1. Login to FTDNA.

  2. On the top navigation row, move the mouse over "Projects" then click "Join a Project."

  3. If "Parker FamGroup1" is displayed in the list, click on it. If "Parker FamGroup1" is NOT displayed in the list, scroll down to the "Search by Surname" option, change "Equals" to "Begins with," enter Parker in the box, click the "Search" button. When the list is displayed, scroll down to the line
    Parker FamGroup 1
    This is a Family Finder project for the Parkers who are related through Family Group 1 in the Parker Y-DNA Surname Project. Men and women who are related to those in Parker Family Group 1 can join ...
    and click on "Parker FamGroup 1."

  4. On the next screen you can enter information on your Parker line, enter a link to an online family tree, or let me know you will send a tree by e-mail. Then click the "Request" button.

  5. It will take some time for the request to be handled and for the project to appear in your list of projects. Once it does, you can use this in your search filters to view only DNA matches who should be related on our Parker Family Group 1 line. This may help us in analyzing the DNA results to try to link our end lines to their parents and help confirm our research on later ancestors is correct.
Please! Be sure to share your Parker lineage or a link to a public online tree. Correlating the family tree information with the DNA information allows new discoveries to be made. Neither DNA not documentary research will solve all our problems. Using them together, we may find a solution. If you have a tree on a site like Ancestry.com, please access your tree then copy the URL from the browser address bar and send that to me. It is easy to locate a tree using the URL. It is sometimes difficult or impossible to locate the tree when you send the name of the tree or your Ancestry user name.

If you took the autosomal test at 23andMe
23andMe instructions for the "new experience" in 2016 will be added at a later date. For pre- and early-2016 experience see this blog post with instructions on how to download your raw atDNA data.

If you took the autosomal test at AncestryDNA
  1. Login to Ancestry.com

  2. In the top navigation bar, click on "DNA" then "You DNA Results Summary"

  3. On the right, click on "Settings"

  4. Click on "Download Raw DNA Data"

  5. Enter your Ancestry.com password and click that you understand the data files on your computer cannot be protected by Ancestry.

  6. Click the "Confirm" button.

  7. The next screen confirms to which e-mail address your raw data message is being sent.

  8. Once the confirmation message arrives in that e-mail account, click on the "Confirm Data Download" button.
  9. This opens a page on Ancestry (if you are not still logged in, you will need to enter the login information), click "Download raw DNA Data" button.

  10. In the Windows "Save As" popup window, navigate to a folder where you want to save the file. Remember the name of this folder and the file as you will need them later. I have a folder where I save all of the DNA data for all of my family members. I name the file something like AncestryDNA_raw__dna-data_DATE_INITIALSofTestTaker.zip (AncestryDNA_raw__dna-data_20160603_DJP.zip) so I know whose DNA data it is and when I downloaded it.
This has saved your data on your computer from the Ancestry server. Now go to the section titled "Uploading to GEDmatch" to place the data on the server where others can compare to the data.

Uploading to GEDmatch

Be aware that once your data is on the GEDmatch server all other GEDmatch users will be able to see the data and compare it to their data. The only way we can use DNA for genealogy is by sharing the data. But if you are concerned about privacy you cn enter an alias as the name of the test-taker. If you are concerned about people seeing your e-mail address you may want to set up a Gmail address (or other e-mail address) you use only for genetic genealogy. Most of us use our real e-mail addresses, but some people prefer not to use their real names. You decide how much infomration you wish to share publicly.

For the GEDmatch privacy policy see https://www.gedmatch.com/policy.php.

  1. If you are not yet registered on GEDmatch, click "Not Registered, Click HERE" and follow the instructions to create your free account.

  2. Login to the newly created account.

  3. In the "File uploads" section and the "Raw DNA file uploads" sub-section, click on the "AncestryDNA.com."

  4. In "Name of DNA Donor," insert name of the person who was tested. Enter an "Alias" if you prefer not to display the real name of the test-taker. Select the "Sex of donor" - the gender of the test-taker. Skip the mitochondrial haplogroup or Y haplogroup questions.

  5. Click on "Yes" to allow your data to be used for comparisons.

  6. Click on the "Choose File" link. Navigate to the folder where you saved the raw data file from Ancestry. Selected the filename (such as AncestryDNA_raw__dna-data_20160603_DJP.zip). Click "Upload." It takes up to several seconds for the file to be uploaded, depending on the speed of your connection. A new message is displayed as the file is processed.

  7. DO NOT LEAVE THIS SCREEN until the processing is completed. The processing will likely take 30 minutes or so, depending on the load on the GEDmatch server. A message will tell you when this is complete. Chromosome numbers will change at the bottom of the screen as the data is processed.

  8. Write down the kit number assigned (such as T123456 or A781234). This number is very important so we can find your DNA data to compare to others in the Parker FamGroup 1 project to learn more about our shared ancestry.

Want to learn more about DNA analysis for Genealogy?

I have several DNA articles linked from my website if you are interested in learning more about genetic genealogy.


To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "Join an Autosomal DNA Project (AncestryDNA, GEDmatch, FTDNA, 23andMe)," Deb's Delvings, 3 June 2016 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2016, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

26 May 2016

mtDNA Match Fix for Genetic Distance at Family Tree DNA

For some time now there have been some odd matches, or lack of matches, in the mtDNA match list of many genetic genealogists due to the way genetic distance is calculated.

Family Tree DNA, as part of other hardware and software changes, has fixed this problem. The fix will soon begin showing up in our match lists. This was announced along with the recent changes made to the algorithms used for Family Finder matches.
Some of you may have dealt with mtDNA results that had some issues with genetic distance. The fix for the root cause of that problem was released awhile back, but we had to wait until all the hardware installations were complete and integrated before re-running those kits affected prior to that fix. We’re in the process of deploying that update now!

Over the next few days, those affected will likely see differences in genetic distance of some matches as the corrections are implemented. Those who have tested after the fix whose mutations were correct may see an increase in matches to existing testers. That’s to be expected.

Everyone who has taken an mtDNA test should check the match list in the coming days in case your list has changed. Here is wishing all of us see some exciting new DNA information with this change.

To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "mtDNA Match Fix for Genetic Distance at Family Tree DNA," Deb's Delvings, 26 May 2016 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2016, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

Updated Threshold Values for Family Finder

I remind researchers in my presentations that we are still at the cutting edge of DNA technology and genetic genealogy, or the bleeding edge as my techie friends phrase it. As we learn more, we change algorithms and techniques to incorporate the new knowledge. I don't expect the advances in genetics to slow down for quite some time so, as Bette Davis said in All About Eve, "Fasten your seat belts, it's going to be a bumpy night." Although for us it won't be just a night, it will be months and years. Most of the bumps should also be major improvements, as is the one discussed below.

Experienced genetic genealogists and test-takers have been asking Family Tree DNA to modify the thresholds used to determine DNA matches in the company database.
The company delivers on those changes with this announcement.
You asked for it - we listened!

For several years the genetic genealogy community has asked for adjustments to the matching thresholds in the Family Finder autosomal test. After months of research and testing, we have implemented some exciting changes ...

Currently, the current matching thresholds - the minimum amount of shared DNA required for two people to show as a match are:
  • Minimum longest block of at least 7.69 cM for 99% of testers, 5.5 cM for the other one percent
  • Minimum 20 total shared centiMorgans

Some people believed those thresholds to be too restrictive, and through the years requested changes that would loosen those restrictions.

... the following changes will have been implemented to the matching program.

  • No minimum shared centiMorgans, but if the cM total is less than 20, at least one segment must be 9 cM or longer.
  • If the longest block of shared DNA is greater than 9 cM, the match will show regardless of total shared cM or the number of matching segments.

The entire existing database has been rerun using the new matching criteria, and all new matches have been calculated with the new thresholds. Most people will see only minor changes in their matches, mostly in the speculative range. They may lose some matches but gain others.

We're excited about this update and hope you will be, too. If you have any questions, please let me know.

Additional information was included in a message to all group administrators.
Until now the amount of shared DNA required for two people to show as a match was a minimum of 20 total centiMorgans of shared DNA with a minimum longest block of at least 7.69 cM for 99% of testers, 5.5 cM for the other one percent.

With the adjustment, if two people share a segment of 9 cM or more, they will show as a match regardless of the number of total shared cM. However, if there’s not a block that’s 9 cM or greater, the minimum of 20 shared cM with a longest block of 7.69 cM applies.

We also slightly altered other proprietary portions of the matching algorithm that will, to a small degree, affect block sizes and total shared centiMorgans. These changes should have only marginal effects, if any, on relationships, generally in the distant to remote ranges.

There’s a separate proprietary formula that is also applied to those with Ashkenazi heritage, but you can, of course, expect to have more new matches than those not of Ashkenazi heritage.

The entire existing database has been rerun using the new matching criteria, and all new matches have been calculated with the new thresholds.

Please keep in mind this change will not affect close matches, only distant and speculative ones. Some matches will fall off, others will be added. Most people will likely have a net gain of matches.

Your myOrigins results may change slightly with the rerun, but we have not updated or changed myOrigins yet. We’ll let you know when that happens.

Blaine Bettinger's post includes a flow chart illustrating the changes:

Blaine T. Bettinger, “Family Tree DNA Updates Matching Thresholds,” The Genetic Genealogist, 24 May 2016 (http://thegeneticgenealogist.com/2016/05/24/family-tree-dna-updates-matching-thresholds/).

Other bloggers who have posted about the change include:

Rebekah Canada, "Coming updates from Family Tree DNA! 25 May 2016," Haplogroup (http://www.haplogroup.org/coming-updates-from-family-tree-dna-25-may-2016/).

David R. Dowell, "More Family Finder Matches?" Dr D Digs Up Ancestor, 24 May 2016 (http://blog.ddowell.com/2016/05/more-family-finder-matches.html).

Roberta Estes, "Family Finder Matching Thresholds Changing at Family Tree DNA," DNAeXplained, 24 May 2016 (https://dna-explained.com/2016/05/24/family-finder-matching-thresholds-changing-at-family-tree-dna/).

Debbie Kennett, "New match thresholds for Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder test," Cruwys news, 24 May 2016 (http://cruwys.blogspot.co.uk/2016/05/new-match-thresholds-for-family-tree.html).

Judy G. Russell, "FTDNA changes matching system," The Legal Genealogist, 24 May 2016 (http://legalgenealogist.com/blog/2016/05/24/ftdna-changes-matching-system/).

To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "Updated Threshold Values for Family Finder," Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 26 May 2016 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2016, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

06 May 2016

Mother's Day DNA Sale at Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA sent the notice below about a great sale that includes the full mtDNA sequence that I have been recommending in my presentations. With the $99 regular price for Family Finder, this sale means the full mtDNA sequence is only $129. This is a great deal, especially considering this test alone cost $850 a few years ago.

Family Finder is the autosomal DNA test that can find cousins on all of the test-taker's ancestral lines. The mtFull Sequence finds others who share the same matrilineal line—the line from the test-taker to his or her mother to her mother to her mother and so on back to mitochondrial Eve.

Contact Family Tree DNA for more info:
Happy Mother's Day!

We are excited to begin our 3-day Mother's Day Sale!

In honor of all of the Mothers around the world, we want to show our appreciation by celebrating this holiday with a special promotion on our Family Finder + mtFull Sequence (mtDNA) bundle – two genealogy DNA tests that focus on mom – for only $228!

Our Mother's Day Sale will continue through Sunday, May 8, 2016 (11:59 PM U.S. Central).

In the chart below, each person with an "m" and a pink shade inherited mtDNA from the mother of the woman labelled as number 2. Other colors indicate mtDNA inherited from women who married into the family. Determine who to test by starting with the focus woman of interest, then following the daughters to a living person. The living person can be male or female but must have a line of only females back to the focus person.

To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "Mother's Day DNA Sale at Family Tree DNA," Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 6 May 2016 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2016, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

03 May 2016

New Book Coming Soon: Genetic Genealogy in Practice

Added after initial post: See Blaine's post at http://thegeneticgenealogist.com/2016/05/03/announcing-genetic-genealogy-in-practice-a-new-book-providing-genealogists-with-the-skills-to-understand-and-apply-dna/ — Announcing “Genetic Genealogy in Practice” – A New Book Providing Genealogists with the Skills to Understand and Apply DNA. See the NGS announcement at http://upfront.ngsgenealogy.org/2016/05/coming-soon-from-ngs-genetic-genealogy.html.

I am excited that I can finally talk publicly about the newest genetic genealogy book which was announced today at the National Genealogical Society Conference in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. The book will be available for purchase in mid-summer so please wait patiently for the printed and electronic versions to be available. I will post again once the book can be ordered. The book is
Bettinger, Blaine T. and Debbie Parker Wayne. Genetic Genealogy in Practice. Washington, DC: National Genealogical Society, 2016.

This is the first genetic genealogy workbook. This book covers the biological basics, types of DNA testing that are useful for genealogy, and analysis techniques needed for successful genetic genealogy. No matter which company a person tested at or which tools are used for data collection and analysis, the information in this book will help a researcher correlate DNA evidence into a family study.

After presenting the concepts of genetic genealogy and the techniques used to analyze the test results, each chapter concludes with typical genealogical questions as exercises. An answer key provides immediate feedback to the reader as to whether he or she arrived at the expected conclusion and what concepts, evidence, and analysis techniques should have been considered while working the problem. Readers will be able to apply the knowledge gained to their own family history to make credible conclusions using DNA test results.

This extracted paragraph explains why all genealogists need to understand DNA, even if you aren't yet using it yourself (but why aren't you?!).
The current generation of genealogists faces a new challenge, namely incorporating the discussion of DNA evidence into genealogical writings. Genealogists must understand how to correlate DNA evidence with documentary evidence to analyze a genealogical question, and they must also understand how to present DNA evidence as one of the elements supporting a conclusion. Genealogists who are not yet using DNA in their own writings must grasp enough of the subject to be able to evaluate the writings of peers who are incorporating DNA.
DNA can seem complex to many of us, but this book will guide you and help build your knowledge level one step at a time. The researcher who is new to genetic genealogy may want to come back to the book and review more advanced concepts after gaining some experience with the basic techniques. The amount of time you can devote to studying is limited only by yourself, not a conference or institute schedule. And you can do it all from home.

Topics covered include
  • an introduction to biology basics and DNA inheritance patterns, only as much as needed for genetic genealogy
  • ethics and standards (the Genealogical Proof Standard as applied to DNA and Genetic Genealogy Standards)
  • Y-DNA STR and SNP tests, test result analysis, and application to genealogical problems
  • mtDNA tests, test result analysis, and application to genealogical problems
  • atDNA tests, test result analysis, and application to genealogical problems
  • X-DNA test result analysis, and application to genealogical problems
  • useful tools for analysis (tool usage and access information, not transitory step-by-step guides)
  • incorporating multiple types of DNA into a family study
  • supporting or refuting a paper trail with DNA
  • incorporating DNA into a written conclusion
  • exercises testing understanding of the concepts covered and application of those associated techniques to answer real genealogical problems
  • an answer key to give the reader immediate feedback on the exercises
  • a glossary explaining the terminology in plain language
  • a list of references for additional study

Blaine and I have been planning for and working on this book for almost two years. After our week-long genetic genealogy courses at the Genealogical Research Institute of Pittsburgh (GRIP), Institute of Genealogy and Historical Research (IGHR), and Salt Lake Institute of Genealogy (SLIG), students want more hands-on time to practice what they have learned. Teaching important concepts limits the time available to devote to exercises. This book provides new and real genealogical problems those students, and all researchers, can practice on at their own pace. After mastering an application, the knowledge can immediately be applied to your own family history project.

We think this book brings together the genetic and the genealogy concepts and techniques needed to solve family history problems using DNA as one more tool in the genealogy toolbox. We hope you enjoy the book and learn more about genetic genealogy. Our goal is to see more researchers effectively using DNA in a family study and publishing those findings for all genealogists to learn from.

P.S. An aside for my family, the middle photograph on the book cover is Allie Perry Richards and Emma Everette Johnson (Granny and Pappy to me) on their wedding day, 23 June 1912. The Johnson family lived in Angelina County; the Richards family lived in Nacogdoches County; and the marriage took place in Sabine County, Texas.

To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "New Book Coming Soon: Genetic Genealogy in Practice," Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 3 May 2016 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2016, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

21 April 2016

DNA Sales and Presentations for DNA Day Celebrations

Yes, there is an official National DNA Day! April 25th.

This year the U.S. National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is presenting an online lecture on "Harry Potter and the Genetics of Wizarding." See more at https://www.genome.gov/10506367/national-dna-day/.

In Tyler, Texas, we will celebrate early on April 23 with an all-day DNA seminar to teach genealogists to begin analyzing DNA test results for evidence to apply to genealogical questions. See more at http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/2016/04/hands-on-dna-workshop-april-23-tyler.html and http://etgs.org/meetings/etgsmtg04_a.html.

Both AncestryDNA and Family Tree DNA are offering sales on DNA test kits.

AncestryDNA is offering a $20 discount — $79 plus free shipping if you use the FREESHIPDNA code. Offer ends Tuesday, 26 April 2016 at 11:59 p.m. ET.

Testing at AncestryDNA allows easy comparisons between your public family tree on Ancestry, if you have one, and the public tree of your DNA matches, if they have a public tree. In-depth analysis of shared DNA segments will require the test results (the raw data file) be uploaded to a third-party tool such as GEDmatch.com. AncestryDNA does not provide the in-depth analysis tools most genetic genealogists need and want. AncestryDNA uses a saliva sample.

Family Tree DNA is offering a $20 discount — $79 for the autosomal DNA test called Family Finder PLUS discounts on most other Y-DNA and mtDNA tests. Offer ends Tuesday, 26 April 2016 at 11:59 p.m. ET.

The Family FInder test and AncestryDNA test are very similar, but only Family Tree DNA offers Y-DNA and mtDNA tests which can be done using the same DNA sample. Family Tree DNA uses a cheek swab which can be easier for some elderly relatives.

Testing at Family Tree DNA allows comparisons between your public family tree on Family Tree DNA, if you have one, and the public tree of your DNA matches, if they have a public tree. In-depth analysis of shared DNA segments can be done using the In-Common-With, Matrix, and chromosome browser tools provided by Family Tree DNA. In addition to using the company-provided tools, the raw data file can also be uploaded to a third-party tool such as GEDmatch.com. The shared segment data can be downloaded using third-party tools at DNAgedcom.com. That data can then be used in many other tools such as Genome Mate Pro and other Genetic Genealogy Tools.

Family Tree DNA's announcement includes this info and these prices for other DNA tests:
The prices are below, and are valid on new tests and add-ons only. Discounts do not combine with existing group discounts. Upgrades will be discounted in June.

Product — Retail Pricing — Sale Price

Family Finder — $99$79
mtFull Seq — $199$149
Y37 — $169$129
Y67 — $268$199
Y111 — $359$289
BigY — $575$460
SNP Packs — $119$109
mtDNA plus — Not on Sale

Let's celebrate DNA Day by adding thousands of test results to the databases!

To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "DNA Sales and Presentations for DNA Day Celebrations," Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 21 April 2016 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2016, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved

13 April 2016

Hands-on DNA Workshop, April 23, Tyler, Texas

One of the biggest complaints of those who attend DNA presentations is that the concepts seem to make sense as one listens, but when you try to apply the concepts to family research it no longer seems as clear.

The East Texas Genealogical Society (ETGS) has asked me to present a one-day, hands-on DNA workshop on Saturday, 23 April 2016, in Tyler, Texas. This workshop will cover the basics of DNA inheritance for the novice then move into some more advanced techniques used to analyze the DNA test results to answer genealogical questions. All of the types of DNA tests used by genealogists will be discussed. The novice and intermediate level genetic genealogist should learn something new in this workshop. The cost is only $10 for ETGS members or $20 for non-members. Walk-ins are welcome, but pre-registration guarantees handouts will be available.

Information on registration can be found online at http://etgs.org/meetings/etgsmtg04_a.html. Registration can be paid online using Paypal or can be mailed to the society. If you want to order lunch, registration must be done by April 15th (only two days from now).

Location: Fairwood United Methodist Church, 1712 Old Omen Road, Tyler, TX 75701
See map here

The schedule for Genetic Genealogy Analysis and Tools: Stepping Up to the Next Level will be:

8:30 a.m. - 9:00 a.m. Registration

9:00 a.m. - 9:15 a.m. Welcome and Information

9:15 a.m. - 10:15 a.m. 1st Session
“Genetic Genealogy Today: DNA Inheritance”

A review of genetic genealogy basics such as the inheritance patterns of each type of DNA used for genealogy. This includes an introduction to some of the tools to be illustrated in later sessions.

10:15 a.m. - 10:45 a.m. Break - snacks and drinks furnished

10:45 a.m. - 11:45 a.m. 2nd Session
“Genetic Genealogy Company Comparisons”

Information on how to choose a DNA testing company, the pros and cons of each company’s offerings, and the tests available today; and
“Tools and Applications for mtDNA”
Illustration of a real-life case study using the latest tools and techniques to analyze mitochondrial DNA (passed along the matrilineal line).

11:45 a.m. - 1:00 p.m. Lunch - bring our own lunch, go to nearby restaurants, or pre-order a box lunch

1:00 p.m. - 2:00 p.m. 3rd Session
“Tools and Applications for Y-DNA”

Illustration of a real-life case study using the latest tools and techniques to analyze Y-DNA (passed along the patrilineal line).

2:00 p.m. - 2:30 p.m. Break - snacks and drinks furnished

2:30 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. 4th Session
“Tools and Applications for atDNA”

Illustration of a real-life case study using the latest tools and techniques to analyze autosomal DNA (inherited through all ancestral lines).

I hope to see you all there.

To cite this blog post:
Debbie Parker Wayne, "Hands-on DNA Workshop, April 23, Tyler, Texas," Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 13 April 2016 (http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ : accessed [date]).

© 2016, Debbie Parker Wayne, Certified Genealogist®, All Rights Reserved